April 7, 2017 Presentations
Evaluation of clenbuterol therapy to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction induced by exposure to gestational diabetes
Presenter: Dr. Joseph Gordon, Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Manitoba
Abstract: Recent evidence has revealed that exposure to gestational diabetes during fetal development alters skeletal muscle metabolism in offspring, which increases the risk for insulin resistance later in life. Despite the clinical relevance, the key molecular players responsible for this observation are not understood. My laboratory recently discovered a genetic pathway that becomes disrupted in skeletal muscle of rodents exposed to gestational diabetes, resulting in increased expression of a mitochondrial inhibitor gene called Nix. Furthermore, we have data suggesting that the Nix function can be inhibited by clenbuterol treatment. Our objective is to evaluate if clenbuterol can reverse Nix-induced skeletal muscle metabolic derangement. To achieve this, we utilize a unique cell culture model that mimics the development of skeletal muscle. These molecular studies are necessary and form the foundation of a larger program of research defining the biological role of Nix and testing the utility of clenbuterol therapy.
Mothering, Guiding and Responding to Children: Considering the Context of Intimate Partner Violence
Presenter: Dr. Christine Ateah, RN, Professor, College of Nursing; Vice-Dean Education, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences
Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has many negative outcomes for women, children, and families. However, there are opposing perspectives and findings with respect to the effects on mothering for abused women. If service providers assume that abused mothers are compromised in their parenting, the larger issue of male violence and women’s and children’s safety can be minimized or even ignored. The question posed in this study was whether there were differences in reported positive parenting responses with children between women who have experienced IPV and those who have not experienced IPV. The study sample of 1211 mothers came from two studies: The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, and The Healing Journey: A Longitudinal Study of Mothers Affected by Intimate Partner Violence. Adaptations of Strayhorn and Weidman’s Positive Interaction and Rational Parenting scales (1988), were used to measure parenting interactions. First, bivariate correlations between the outcome variables and maternal age, maternal education, child age, and child sex were calculated to determine whether any of these variables were significantly related to the Positive Interaction Scale or Rational Parenting Scale. ANCOVA was then used to determine if mothers who had experienced IPV differed in their scores on the two parenting scales from mothers who had not experienced IPV. Findings do not support the notion that abused women are compromised in their parenting responses with their children in regards to positive interactions and behaviour management. Recommendations include the need for a greater focus on the prevention of IPV, providing appropriate support for mothers who experience IPV, and addressing the source of the violence.
Experiences and satisfaction with intrapartum care: a comparison of normal weight women to obese women
Presenter: Ms. Christine Finnbogasson, RN, MN
Abstract: Obesity is a steadily growing problem, and has both physiological and psychological consequences during pregnancy. Obese women may face discrimination which could shape their perceptions of maternity care. To date, few studies have studied the influence of body weight on patient satisfaction with care. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare childbirth experiences and satisfaction with intrapartum care of normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2) women and (2) to determine factors associated with satisfaction with intrapartum care. Guided by Barker’s (1997) pragmatic model of patient satisfaction, a descriptive comparative and correlational design was used to examine the relationship between childbirth experiences, weight discrimination, and satisfaction with intrapartum care among normal weight and obese women. Postpartum primiparous women (N = 138) in two Winnipeg hospitals completed a questionnaire package and had their chart reviewed (70 normal weight, 68 obese weight). Results: Using independent t-test, no significant differences in satisfaction with intrapartum care or childbirth experiences were found in the two weight groups. In the linear multiple regression model, perceived weight discrimination during labour and delivery was negatively associated (β = -5.78, p = 0.032), while professional support (β = 13.11, p < .001) and perceived control and safety (β = 3.25, p = 0.032) were positively associated with satisfaction with intrapartum care. Understanding factors that influence satisfaction with intrapartum care will assist healthcare providers and administrators to improve satisfaction in all women regardless of their weight.
April 26, 2017 Presentations
Caregivers’ lived experience of their child’s anaphylactic reactions: An interpretive phenomenology
Presenter: Ms. Rishma Chooniedass, RN, MN
Abstract: Children with life threatening food allergies live with the constant threat of a fatal reaction, and caregivers must be prepared to treat with an epinephrine auto-injector (EAI). Morbidity and mortality are associated with a delay or lack of epinephrine use and it is well documented that rates of epinephrine use during an anaphylactic reaction are alarmingly low. An interpretive phenomenology explored caregivers’ perceptions and lived experiences with prescribed EAI use for their child’s anaphylactic reaction. The purposive sample consisted of 11 caregivers of children under the age of 12, diagnosed with a food allergy, prescribed an EAI and who experienced an anaphylactic reaction within the last two years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software was used to organize and manage the data and interpretive phenomenological analysis was performed. Eight main themes emerged: perception of anaphylaxis, life challenges, isolation, anxiety, hesitation, guilt, influence of health care, and lessons learned. Caregivers explained the multiple life challenges and feelings of isolation. During reactions, caregivers identified anxiety and hesitation that lead to subsequent guilt. They shared an uncertainty in discerning if the child was experiencing anaphylaxis, which led to waiting for the situation to spontaneously improve. Some participants shared that handling reactions correctly provided them with confidence to treat subsequent reactions. Witnessing the rapid effects of EAI and receiving positive support from health care providers further facilitated caregivers’ abilities and confidence to quickly and competently intervene in future reactions. Findings have been incorporated into innovative educational tools for caregivers of children with food allergies.
Families’ Experiences Living with Acquired Brain Injury: A Narrative Inquiry Study
Presenter: Ms. Jane Karpa, RPN, MMFT, PhD (c), Assistant Professor, Chair, Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Brandon University, Faculty of Health Studies
Abstract: Notoriously known as the ‘silent epidemic’, Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) has reached worldwide epidemic proportions. While ABIs are manifested in individuals, families’ lives are dramatically affected by ABIs. Individuals with an ABI can experience a range of cognitive, behavioural and emotional impairments, often not visible, that may cause significant disruptions/changes to their psycho-social presence and identity. These post ABI changes can directly impact individuals’ and families’ experiences and lead to an overwhelming sense of loss. The purpose of this research study is to examine families’ experiences living with ABI. The research question is: How do families make sense of their experiences living with ABI? This study will be guided by ambiguous loss theory and use a research approach that includes both the affected individual family member and the family together as a family group. This will be a qualitative narrative study. The purpose of narrative inquiry is to capture and examine the stories people tell to explain their lives. Families build stories/narratives from reflecting on how they make sense of their world, express rules of interaction and create beliefs about relationships. Narrative inquiry emphasizes meaning development through the characteristics of relatedness, identity and time; therefore it is a useful methodology for examining families affected by an ABI. While narrative inquiry within the social sciences has been utilized extensively with individuals and groups, its application to investigations with families as a unit is unique. The purpose of this oral presentation is to provide an overview of the background, conceptual framework, and methodology of this successfully defended PhD thesis proposal.
Will she say yes? Traditionalism within accepted and rejected marriage proposals
Presenter: Dr. Lisa Hoplock
Abstract: Rituals communicate one’s values and are a way to bond with others (Rossano, 2014). One common, understudied, ritual is the marriage proposal. People judge the strength of a couple’s relationship and the legitimacy of the proposal based on the presence of the ritualistic elements, with the engagement ring holding special significance (Schweingruber et al., 2004, 2008). However, existing research has only focused on accepted proposals and has yet to examine traditionalism within rejected proposals. The present research fills this gap. Because the behavioural script is well known in Western society, we hypothesized that there would be high rates of traditional behaviours across proposal outcomes. We conducted a content analysis of 252 marriage proposal videos (40 rejected proposals, 252 accepted proposals; Study 1) and 400 written accounts (200 rejected proposals, 200 accepted proposals; Study 2). Trained coders coded for traditionalistic behaviour (e.g., offering a ring) and explored for themes in the data. Encouraging traditionalism emerged as a theme. For example, proposers were encouraged to ask, “Will you marry me” if it was not asked. Results also indicated that rejected men performed fewer traditional behaviours than accepted men. Furthermore, the odds of a proposal being accepted were 3-4 times higher if the proposer bent on one knee and 9-18 times higher if the proposer presented a ring. Regardless of outcome, the people present were sometimes upset when the script was violated. Taken together, this research highlights the importance of traditionalism and illuminates behaviour within rejected proposals. Future research directions will be discussed.